Iron smelting and forging technologies may have existed in West Africa among the Nok culture of Nigeria as early as the sixth century B.C. In the period from 1400 to 1600, iron technology appears to have been one of a series of fundamental social assets that facilitated the growth of significant centralized kingdoms in …
When was iron discovered in Africa?
Iron technology first appears in the African continent in the 1st millennium BCE, and the term Iron Age is generally used, certainly south of the Sahara, to describe iron-using communities in Africa until the modern historical era.
Who introduced iron metallurgy in Africa?
Iron smelting in Egypt was not known before the eighth century BC. There is no material evidence for early ironworking in North Africa, but it is presumed to have been introduced by Phoenician settlers in or after the ninth century BC (107).
How was iron discovered in Africa?
Africa is rather large, and the smelting of iron took place there for at least 2500 years. … The technology, if it wasn’t invented independently, could easily have reached Northern Africa via the Phoenicians and the Meroitic regions (now Sudan) down the Nile from the Hitittes when they had invaded Egypt.
Where did iron smelting originate?
The Iron Age in the Ancient Near East is believed to have begun with the discovery of iron smelting and smithing techniques in Anatolia or the Caucasus and Balkans in the late 2nd millennium BC ( c. 1300 BC). The earliest bloomery smelting of iron is found at Tell Hammeh, Jordan around 930 BC (14C dating).
Where is iron located in Africa?
Iron ore production in Africa is dominated by South Africa, Mauritania and Algeria. Many countries possess iron ore deposits that are as yet untapped/unmined.
When was iron working invented?
Iron working was introduced to Greece in the late 10th century BC. The earliest marks of Iron Age in Central Europe are artifacts from the Hallstatt C culture (8th century BC). Throughout the 7th to 6th centuries BC, iron artifacts remained luxury items reserved for an elite.
In which areas in Africa was iron technology first introduced?
Iron smelting came into Central Africa from two directions. In the northwest the oldest source of the new knowledge was on the Nigerian plateau. The skill necessary to dig pit furnaces and surround them with ranks of bellows spread among the Bantu-speaking peoples of the western forest.
How was iron discovered?
Archeologists believe that iron was discovered by the Hittites of ancient Egypt somewhere between 5000 and 3000 BCE. During this time, they hammered or pounded the metal to create tools and weapons. They found and extracted it from meteorites and used the ore to make spearheads, tools and other trinkets.
What role did iron play in West Africa?
Iron played a central role in many societies of early Africa. It held both spiritual and material power. Physically, Africans used iron to create tools for agriculture, utensils for everyday life, and weapons for protection and conquest (Shillington, 2012, p. 45).
Where did iron originate in Africa?
Evidence exists for earlier iron metallurgy in parts of Nigeria, Cameroon, and Central Africa, possibly from as early as around 2,000 BCE. Some evidence from historical linguistics suggests that the Nok culture of Nigeria may have practiced iron smelting from as early as 1000 BCE.
Who were the first people in West Africa to develop iron?
These farmers were super into metal
In sub-Saharan Africa, the Iron Age began sometime between 1000 and 550 BCE, and it began with the Nok people, a culture that sculpted elaborate terracotta figurines, farmed millet, and developed iron smelting.
How did iron factor in the development of the West African kingdoms?
In addition to the gold trade, historians have pointed to a second important factor in the development of these West African Kingdoms. This was the use of iron. The use of iron to make tools and weapons helped some people to expand their control over neighboring people.
Who Discovered iron?
The first person to explain the various types of iron was René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur who wrote a book on the subject in 1722. This explained how steel, wrought iron, and cast iron, were to be distinguished by the amount of charcoal (carbon) they contained.